On March 22nd, 2016, Pollution Probe hosted the Pathways Initiative Workshop. The session engaged a range of transportation stakeholders and leading world and Canadian experts with the objective of identifying opportunities for long term and deep reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation.
The workshop was sponsored by Imperial, with support from the Canadian Fuels Association, the Ontario Trucking Association, the Railway Association of Canada, and Toyota Canada.
Workshop presentations are available for download below.
Speakers and Presentations
a/Chief Executive Officer
Prior to joining Pollution Probe, Steve McCauley served as Director General, Energy and Transportation with Environment Canada. He is a leading expert in the environmental field, having spent more than twenty years at Environment Canada managing the development and implementation of policies and programs in numerous areas, including climate change, air pollution, and the advancement of renewable energy and clean technologies. He has led the development of national renewable energy and clean technology strategies and initiatives in partnership with provincial governments, the environmental community, industry and international partners, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the United Nations. Steve also led federal and international regulatory actions on greenhouse gas emissions, air contaminant emissions and chemicals management in transportation, energy and other industrial sectors. Steve is joining Pollution Probe to continue the organization’s recent successes in promoting sustainable transportation systems, advancing energy literacy and protecting human health.
“Decarbonizing the transportation sector is a massive challenge”: Steve McCauley emphasized that 35% of Ontario’s total GHG emissions come from transportation, with forecasts projecting continued emissions growth until 2030 in key parts of the sector. While Ontario has a strong regulatory foundation for transportation, much more needs to be done to reduce transportation emissions for the Province to meet its ambitious target of reducing GHG emissions by 80% from 1990 levels by 2050.
Pollution Probe’s Pathways Initiative Workshop has been designed to identify best practices, technologies and approaches for decarbonizing Ontario’s transportation sector. Workshop presentations examine a broad range of technologies and other opportunities for GHG reduction potential; health and social benefits; technological feasibility; and barriers to implementation.
Speakers from government, industry, academia, and the not-for-profit sector offered perspectives on transportation decarbonization. Alex Wood gave an overview of Ontario’s actions to reduce transportation emissions through its Climate Change Strategy, its proposed Climate Change Mitigation and Low Carbon Economy Act, and its Cap and Trade Program. Peter Boag outlined key challenges to the decarbonization of transportation from an industry perspective, presenting several pathways and their potential economic implications. Bob Oliver stated that decarbonizing transportation requires a strategic approach with a long-term vision of success.
Alex Wood is the Executive Director of Ontario’s Climate Change Directorate at the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Alex has over 20 years of experience working at the intersection of economic and environmental policy. He started his career with the World Wildlife Fund in Washington, DC, before moving back to Canada to work at the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), where he eventually acted as President and CEO. He then helped TD Bank Group establish its environmental policy, before moving to work at Sustainable Prosperity as Senior Director, Policy and Markets. In addition to his extensive work experience, Alex is a graduate of the University of Toronto and holds a Masters degree from The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies with a double major in International Economics and Energy and Environmental Studies.
Peter Boag is President & CEO of the Canadian Fuels Association, the organization that represents the industry that supplies 95 percent of Canada’s transportation fuels. He provides executive leadership to a team of business and public policy professionals that bring knowledge, expertise and practical insight to fuels policy making. Canadian Fuels engages all levels of government – federal, provincial and municipal – focusing on environmental, health and safety policy and regulation.
Mr. Boag has more than 20 years of public policy advocacy and industry association leadership experience. He was appointed President of the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute, Canadian Fuels’ predecessor, in 2007. From 1992 to 2007, he worked at the Aerospace Industries Association of Canada, serving as its President and CEO from 2003 to 2007.
Mr. Boag is a graduate of the University of Waterloo’s Faculty of Environmental Studies, and has a Masters degree in Business Administration from Queen’s University.
Bob Oliver, P. Eng., is a current Chief Technology Officer and former Chief Executive Officer of Pollution Probe. Under Bob’s leadership, Pollution Probe has undergone both an organizational and operational transformation, positioning it at the leading edge of a rapidly evolving economic, social and environmental policy landscape. Bob has been instrumental in expanding and solidifying Pollution Probe’s leadership expertise in the related fields of transportation and energy. Considered one of Canada’s leading experts on vehicle fuel efficiency, Bob acts as an independent source of transportation policy advice for industry and federal and provincial governments. Before joining Pollution Probe as a project manager and then establishing and becoming the director of its new Transportation Programme, Bob was an energy efficiency analyst at Marbek Resource Consultants and an engineer at Cintas Canada Limited, where he managed industrial-scale projects and developed and implemented energy efficiency strategies. Bob is a professional engineer and has a bachelor of mechanical engineering from Carleton University.
Morning Breakout Sessions:
John German addressed fuel-saving light-duty vehicle technologies and David Greene presented on hydrogen fuel cell technologies. Moderator Stéphane Couroux reflected that a key challenge emerging from the session is the need for acceptance from the general public, which tends to be risk averse when it comes to novel technologies. Mr. Couroux also pointed out that the session suggested that GHG emissions reductions will require a broad transformation of the energy system, a complex process involving economics, institutions, and consumer behaviour.
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Fuel-Saving Light Duty Vehicle Technology
The International Council
on Clean Transportation
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology
David Greene, Ph.D.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Knoxville Tennessee
Stéphane Couroux is the Director of the Transportation Division of Environment and Climate Change Canada. This division is essentially responsible for the development, administration and implementation of regulations under the authority of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 to reduce air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from on- and off-road vehicles and engines.
Stéphane has over 15 years of experience with the Transportation Division of Environment Canada. Over this period, Stéphane has occupied various positions of increasing responsibilities working on several of the Division’s regulations, including:
- On Road-Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations;
- Off-Road Small Spark-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations;
- Off-Road Compression-Ignition Engine Emission Regulations;
- Marine Spark-Ignition Engine, Vessel and Off-Road Recreational Vehicle Emission Regulations;
- Passenger Automobile and Light Truck Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations; and,
- Heavy-Duty Vehicle and Engine Greenhouse Gas Emission Regulations.
Stéphane is also actively engaged leading ECCC’s contribution to many domestic and international policy forums for transportation, including the Mobile Sources Working Group under the CCME, the World Forum for Harmonization of Regulations under the UNECE, the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization.
John German is a Senior Fellow for the International Council for Clean Transportation, with primary responsibility for technology innovation and U.S. policy development. Mr. German has been involved with advanced technology and efficiency since joining Chrysler in 1976, where he spent 8 years in Powertrain Engineering working on fuel economy issues. He then spent 13 years doing research and writing regulations for EPA’s Office of Mobile Sources’ laboratory in Ann Arbor, MI. Prior to joining ICCT 7 years ago, he spent 11 years as Manager of Environmental and Energy Analyses for American Honda Motor Company, with an emphasis on being a liaison between Honda’s R&D staff in Japan and regulatory affairs. Mr. German is the author of a book on hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles published by SAE and a variety of technical papers, including the future of hybrid vehicles, technology costs and benefits, consumer valuation of fuel savings, feebates, and light truck trends. He was the first recipient of the Barry D. McNutt award, presented annually by SAE for Excellence in Automotive Policy Analysis. He has a bachelor’s degree in Physics from the University of Michigan and got over half way through an MBA before he came to his senses.
David Greene is a Senior Fellow of the Howard H. Baker, Jr. Center for Public Policy and a Research Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Tennessee. In 2013 he retired from Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a Corporate Fellow after 36 years researching transportation and energy issues. Author of over 275 professional publications, he is a Lifetime National Associate of the National Academies and recipient of the Transportation Research Board’s Roy W. Crum Award.
Morning Breakout Sessions:
Both presentations focused on ground freight transportation, featuring emerging heavy-duty vehicle technologies (Anthony Greszler) and rail technologies (Peter Eggleton). Moderator Ken Ogilvie reflected that the session identified cost as a key barrier to the adoption of these technologies. Despite significant potential for emissions reductions, freight transport is expected to use hydrocarbons well into the future.
Independent Environmental Consultant
Fuel-Saving Heavy Duty Vehicle Technology
Engine and Vehicle Engineering
and Emissions Control Consulting
Railway Systems and Locomotive Technology
Ken Ogilvie has 40 years of environmental experience in governments (Canada, Manitoba, Ontario) in positions ranging from project engineer to strategic planning to manager of policy coordination. In addition to working for the past seven years as an environmental policy consultant to government, industry, and environmental organizations across Canada, Ken currently serves on several non-profit boards and advisory committees. Ken has worked in the past as Executive Director of Pollution Probe, a national environmental organization, as Executive Coordinator of the Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy (an advisory group to the Premier of Ontario), and as Executive Director of the Canadian Environmental Advisory Council (an advisory group to the federal Minister of the Environment).
Ken has a Bachelor of Applied Science, Civil Engineering, University of Waterloo, and a Master of Business Administration, York University. He has been awarded an Honorary Doctor of Environmental Studies from the University of Waterloo, and an Honorary Doctor of Laws from Thompson Rivers University in British Columbia.
Anthony Greszler has been involved with diesel engine and commercial vehicle development since 1977, with experience in all aspects of engine and powertrain design and development, including heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines and other alternative fuels. He is also working on overall road freight efficiency through integrated complete vehicle development and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with road freight. From 1977-2001 he was with Cummins Engine Co. responsible for design and development of heavy duty diesel engines, including on-highway and off-highway applications. In 2001, he became Vice President, Engineering for Volvo Powertrain, North America, a division of AB Volvo, with responsibility for engine development for Mack Trucks and Volvo Trucks North America, including US 2007 and 2010 emissions. In 2005, he took responsibility for Advanced Engineering for Engines and Vehicle Propulsion with focus on diesel combustion/emissions, hybrid propulsion, advanced transmissions, and alternative fuels. Currently, he is Vice President Government and Industry Relations focusing on fuel savings and CO2 mitigation from road freight transport and heavy-duty vehicle regulations. Other activities include serving as an officer and current chair of the Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association, member-Transportation Research Board Special Task Force on Climate Change and Energy, and National Academy of Science “Committee for Potential Energy Savings and Green House Gas Reduction from Transportation”. He has been a speaker at numerous conferences related to diesel engine and freight efficiency and has testified in the House Committee on Science and Technology relative to commercial vehicle technology programs. Anthony holds holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in Mechanical Engineering, both of which he earned at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
Peter Eggleton is a mechanical engineer whose expertise is focused on the innovation process in new transportation technology. He has a BApSc from UBC and a MApSc (in diesel engine design) from Rugby College of Engineering (now University of Warwick), UK. He has held engineering and management positions at Canadair, Free Piston Engine Development, Pratt & Whitney Canada, Transport Canada’s Transportation Development Centre, Canadian Pacific Consulting Services, and two 5-year postings with Foreign Affairs & International Trade Canada as Science and Technology (S&T) Counsellor in embassies in Japan and Brussels – being Canadian-side negotiator for treaty-level S&T cooperation agreements with Japan and the European Union.
His transportation technology development experience included supersonic and STOL aircraft, hovercraft, ice-breaking ships, solids pipelines, LRC passenger train, Vancouver Skytrain, BCRail electrification, Railpower battery-powered locomotive, Maglev and high-speed rail studies. Since 1996, he has been principal consultant with the TELLIGENCE Group undertaking contracts on locomotive energy and emissions reduction, drafting annual Railway Association of Canada Locomotive Emissions Monitoring reports, and railway applications of hydrogen fuel cells.
Afternoon Breakout Sessions:
Speakers addressed three low-carbon options for moving people – active transportation (Ryan O’Connor), public transit (Josipa Petrunic) and electric vehicle technologies (Matthew Stevens). According to moderator Michael Kandravy, the session suggested that cities should be designed to prioritize active transportation. Mr. Kandravy highlighted Dr. Stevens’ statement that active transportation, public transit, and electric vehicles should be viewed, respectively, as the best plan, the backup plan, and the backup to the backup plan for moving people.
Fuels Quality and Regulatory Affairs
Active Transportation and Urban Form
8 80 Cities
Transforming Public Transit
Josipa Petrunic, Ph.D.
Executive Director and CEO
Canadian Urban Transit Research and Innovation Consortium
Optimizing Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles
Matthew Stevens, Ph.D.
Chief Executive Officer
Michael Kandravy is the Director Fuels Quality and Regulatory Affairs at Suncor Energy, with over 30 years of experience in the petroleum industry. He has been on the front lines of the evolution renewable fuel and climate change regulations and low carbon fuel standards for nearly a decade. His approach with all stakeholders is to “educate and mentor” to allow others to establish an informed position.
He is currently a member of several industry working groups on climate change, air quality, fuel quality and renewable fuels.
Kandravy holds a Bachelor of Commerce and a Masters of Business Administration from Concordia University in Montreal.
Ryan O’Connor is an urban planner with a background in community development and active transportation. As a Project Manager at 8 80 Cities, Ryan has hosted inclusive community engagement sessions and workshops across Ontario, and contributed to the development of high-impact projects such as a bicycle network plan, temporary public spaces, and a neighbourhood ice rink. By helping communities to think big and act now, Ryan’s work contributes to the creation of vibrant public spaces and stronger pedestrian and cycling networks. Ryan holds a MA in planning from the University of British Columbia. Before joining 8 80 Cities, Ryan worked on a variety of public realm improvement projects – from parklets to plazas – and contributed to a community planning process with the City of Vancouver. Ryan also holds a BA from the University of Winnipeg, where he majored in politics.
Josipa Petrunic, Ph.D., is the Executive Director & CEO of the Canadian Urban Transit Research and Innovation Consortium (CUTRIC). Dr. Petrunic also serves as the Lead Researcher in electric vehicle policy studies at McMaster University. She is currently leading the completion of an Ontario Electric Vehicle Technology Roadmap funded by a federal Automotive Partnership Canada (APC) grant and slated for publication in 2016. Dr. Petrunic lectures in Globalization Studies at McMaster University as part of the Institute for Globalization and she lecturers in interdisciplinary research methods as part of the Master’s of Arts in Integrated Studies program at Athabasca University. Dr. Petrunic worked previously as a senior research fellow at University College London (UCL) in the United Kingdom focusing on Science and Technology Studies and the history of mathematics and engineering. She completed her PhD in the History of Mathematics at the University of Edinburgh (Scotland) after completing a Master’s of Science in Science and Technology Studies (STS) at the same institution. She completed a Master’s of Science in Political Philosophy at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) and a bachelor’s degree in Political Science and Journalism at Carleton University. Before pursuing graduate studies, Dr. Petrunic worked as an intern journalist at the Globe and Mail, Toronto Star and Edmonton Journal.
Matt Stevens, Ph.D., is Co-founder and CEO of FleetCarma. He has been involved in the design of over 15 hybrid and electric vehicles, ranging from cars to lunar rovers to stealth snowmobiles and now works on making personal fuel economy labels for fleets and individuals looking to pick the best green vehicle for them. Matt is Chairman of Electric Mobility Canada, technical chair of EV2011 and an Adjunct Professor at the University of Waterloo, co-supervising research in hybrid and electric powertrain design. Matt was named to Waterloo Region’s Top 40 Under 40. He was recognized for his contributions and leadership in the area of hybrid and electric powertrains. He is also a Julie Payette-NSERC award recipient. Matt holds a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Waterloo.
Afternoon Breakout Sessions:
Carolyn Tester discussed renewably-sourced fuels; Karl Simon presented on autonomous vehicle technology; Wayne Passmore addressed natural gas in transportation – three areas that could offer GHG reductions within a variety of transportation modes. Moderator Dianne Zimmerman highlighted workshop participants’ comments that to achieve GHG emissions reductions in transportation, regulations must be created to support more than just one technology.
Transportation and Urban Solutions
Senior Regulatory Affairs
and Planning Advisor
Autonomous Vehicle Technology
Director, Transportation and Climate Division
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Natural Gas and Natural Gas Infrastructure in Transportation
Economic Development Manager
Union Gas Limited
Dianne Zimmerman is the director of the Pembina Institute’s transportation and urban solutions program in Ontario. Dianne focuses on engaging in a variety of strategies and activities characteristic of the Pembina Institute: policy research and analysis, transportation sector data analysis and scenario modelling; convening, consulting and collaborating on projects with key stakeholders; and awareness building via public and media engagement. The emphasis in Ontario is to support sustainable transportation solutions and location-efficient development in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, while sharing research and pilot project experiences with other jurisdictions across Canada.
Dianne has a Master of Environmental Studies from York University and a bachelor of arts degree in commerce and environmental studies from the University of Toronto, and is a LEED accredited professional.
Carolyn Tester holds Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering and MBA degrees, both from the University of Alberta. Upon graduating with the engineering degree, Carolyn joined Imperial and has held a variety of roles related to petroleum refining and supply operations over the last 23 years. She has been in her current role as a Senior Regulatory Affairs and Planning Advisor for fuels issues, including biofuels, since 2012. As part of this role Carolyn works with governments on biofuel policy and provides internal expertise on biofuels issues. She has experience in biofuel regulations and supply planning in jurisdictions across Canada and is part of the global biofuels team within ExxonMobil.
Karl Simon is the Director of the Transportation and Climate Division of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. His portfolio includes work with renewable fuels, voluntary programs like Smartway, and modeling and forecasting of mobile source emissions trends. He previously served as Director of the Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division, where he was responsible for managing the certification, registration and compliance activities associated with all engines and fuels sold in the United States. Some of the major activities he has been extensively involved in are the 2004 Clean Nonroad Engine and Fuel Program, the National LEV program, and the Renewable Fuels Programs. He also works on international mobile source harmonization issues. Previously, he was the Assistant Director for the Office, worked in the mobile source recall branch at EPA, and the submarine construction and design division at Newport News Ship building and Dry Dock Company. Mr. Simon holds a Bachelor of Science in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Notre Dame, a law degree from the George Mason University School of Law, and a Masters in Environmental Law from George Washington University.
Wayne Passmore is the Economic Development Manager for Union Gas Limited. Wayne is accountable for the business relationship between Union Gas and new, large volume customers interested in investing in Union’s Ontario service area. His role includes working collaboratively with targeted economic development groups and industry associations across the province. He is also actively involved with Union’s commercial strategies relating to new business development opportunities for Compressed Natural Gas, Liquefied Natural Gas and Renewable Natural Gas.
Over Wayne’s 25 years at Union Gas, he has also held a number of strategic sales, business development and engineering roles including accountability for new products and services, wholesale service sales to other North American utilities, pipelines and power generators.
Wayne is a Professional Engineer and graduate of the University of Waterloo, with a degree in Geological Engineering.
Thank You to Our Sponsors
- 8 80 Cities
- BioFuelNet Canada
- Bruce Power
- Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME)
- Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI)
- Canadian Fuels Association
- Canadian Geographic
- Canadian Natural Gas Vehicle Alliance
- Canadian Urban Transit Association (CUTA)
- Canadian Urban Transit Research and Innovation Consortium (CUTRIC)
- Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers’ Association (CVMA)
- Change Energy
- City of Hamilton
- CrossChasm Technologies
- DesRosiers Automotive Consultants
- Environment and Climate Change Canada
- Environmental Commissioner of Ontario
- Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) Canada Inc.
- Global Automakers of Canada
- GM Canada
- H-D Systems
- Imperial Oil
- Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO)
- International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT)
- Intrinsik Environmental Sciences Inc.
- Mindfirst Inc.
- Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)
- Next Hydrogen Corporation
- Ontario Ministry of Economic Development, Employment and Infrastructure (MEDEI)
- Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change (MOECC)
- Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO)
- Ontario Sustainable Energy Association
- Pembina Institute
- Plug’n Drive
- Pollution Probe
- Power Workers’ Union
- Railway Association of Canada
- Ryerson University
- Science Concepts International
- Scout Environmental
- Suncor Energy
- Telligence Group
- The Delphi Group
- Toyota Canada
- Transport Canada
- Union Gas Limited
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)
- University of Tennessee Knoxville
- University of Toronto
- Volkswagen Group Canada
- Walk Toronto